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Review Papers | Pharmacy | India | Volume 12 Issue 9, September 2023
Advances in Dosage Forms and Devices for Addressing Cardiac Emergencies: A Comprehensive Review
Aswini Ullas K | Dr. Vimal KR | Dr. R. Nethaji
Abstract: Cardiac arrest is characterized by the abrupt halt of both spontaneous breathing and circulation. When cardiac arrest occurs, the individual loses consciousness within 15 seconds. Around 30 seconds later, their brain activity, as measured by the electroencephalogram, becomes flat. After approximately 60 seconds, their pupils fully dilate. Significant damage to the brain can begin to occur between 90 and 300 seconds, making immediate action crucial to prevent irreversible harm. Rapid intervention is vital due to the potential for swift and irreversible damage. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is employed to restore natural circulation. This life-saving technique involves several approaches, including prompt defibrillation, consistent and effective chest compressions, advanced airway methods, and, if needed, medications. It's important to prioritize the initial steps such as defibrillation, chest compressions, and ventilation before contemplating drug administration. Although a few drugs offer short-term survival benefits, no specific drug therapy during CPR has demonstrated consistent improvement in survival until hospital discharge. In the initial stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, there were reports of an increased occurrence of sudden cardiac arrests (SCA) and reduced rates of survival. The pandemic had a profound impact on both the frequency of cardiac arrests and the chances of survival.This paper reviews the management and pharmacotherapy of cardiac arrest.
Keywords: Cardiac arrest, CPR, AED, Arrhythmia, COVID-19
Edition: Volume 12 Issue 9, September 2023,
Pages: 254 - 262