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Case Studies | Medicine | India | Volume 12 Issue 6, June 2023
A Case Series of Leptospirosis
Dr. Kaverikannan .R | Dr. Vignesh S
Abstract: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Leptospira. It is transmitted through direct contact with urine, blood, or infected tissue of animals. Leptospira species are highly motile, coiled, thin, helical organisms with periplasmic flagella. They stain poorly but can be visualized using dark field microscopy. Leptospirosis has a wide range of manifestations, from asymptomatic illness to severe complications. The classification of Leptospira species based on serology is valuable for clinical, epidemiological, and diagnostic purposes. This article presents a case series discussing various clinical presentations of leptospirosis. The cases include diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, necrotizing pancreatitis, acute myocarditis, Guillain-Barr? syndrome, and sepsis with multiorgan failure. Each case describes the patient's clinical features, laboratory findings, imaging studies, and treatment outcomes. The first case involves a young female with fever, breathlessness, and hemoptysis, diagnosed with leptospirosis-associated diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. The second case highlights an agricultural worker presenting with fever, abdominal pain, and necrotizing pancreatitis. The third case presents a male patient with fever, chest discomfort, and acute myocarditis. The fourth case describes a male with weakness in limbs progressing to Guillain-Barr? syndrome. The fifth case involves a dehydrated male farmer with sepsis and multiorgan dysfunction syndrome. Leptospirosis can present with a wide spectrum of manifestations, and early diagnosis is crucial for appropriate management. Laboratory investigations, including serological tests, can aid in confirming the diagnosis. Treatment involves antibiotics, supportive care, and specific interventions based on the organ involvement. Prompt intervention can prevent further organ damage and improve outcomes in severe cases of leptospirosis. In conclusion, this case series provides valuable insights into the diverse clinical presentations of leptospirosis. Increased awareness and early recognition of the disease can aid in timely diagnosis and appropriate management, ultimately reducing morbidity and mortality associated with this infectious disease.
Keywords: Leptospira, Spirochaetales, Leptospiraceae, L. interrogans, L. biflexa, Pathogenic leptospira, Serovars, Serogroups, Clinical manifestations, Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, Necrotizing pancreatitis, Acute myocarditis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Sepsis with multiorgan failure, Diagnosis, Epidemiology, Diagnostic tests, Hemoptysis, Radiological manifestations, Treatment, Antibiotics, Fluid management, Hemodialysis, Complications, Mortality, Public health
Edition: Volume 12 Issue 6, June 2023,
Pages: 317 - 319