International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
Call for Papers | Fully Refereed | Open Access | Double Blind Peer Reviewed

ISSN: 2319-7064


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Review Papers | Medical Science | Albania | Volume 11 Issue 10, October 2022


Evidenced Based Management of Pushing in Second Stage of Labour

Drita Bujari | Alketa Hoxha [6]


Abstract: Recognition that the available evidence does not support arbitrary time limits for the second stage of labor has led to reconsideration of the influence of maternal bearing down efforts on fetal/newborn status as well as on maternal pelvic structural integrity. The evidence that the duration of 'active' pushing is associated with fetal acidosis and denervation injury to maternal perineal musculature has contributed to the delineation of at least two phases during second stage, an early phase of continued fetal descent, and a phase of "active" pushing. The basis for the recommendation that the early phase of passive descent be prolonged and the phase of active pushing shortened by strategies to achieve effective, but non-detrimental pushing efforts is reviewed. The rational includes an emphasis on the obstetric factors that are optimal for birth and conducive to efficient maternal bearing down. Explicit assessment of these obstetric factors and observation of maternal behavior, particularly evidence of an involuntary urge to push, should be coupled with the use of maternal positions that will promote fetal descent as well as reduce maternal pain.


Keywords: duration of active second-stage labor, maternal and neonatal outcome


Edition: Volume 11 Issue 10, October 2022,


Pages: 981 - 985


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