International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
Call for Papers | Fully Refereed | Open Access | Double Blind Peer Reviewed

ISSN: 2319-7064


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Research Paper | Peace and Conflict Studies | Kenya | Volume 9 Issue 7, July 2020


Economic Effects of Improvised Explosive Device (IED) Attacks on the Livelihoods of the People of Mandera East Sub County, Mandera County, Kenya

Paul Chepkenen [2] | Dr. Duncan Ochieng [2] | Dr Antony Odek


Abstract: Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) continue to be an everyday threat to citizens in disputes across the globe, and have been a selected armament for non-state armed groups. In Kenya, since the Kenya Defence Forces (KDF) joined the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) on 14 October 2011, there was sudden rise in retaliatory attacks by use of IEDs targeting civilians and security personnel. These attacks have disrupted the livelihoods of people, especially those living along the porous border with Somalia. This study, therefore, sought to examine the economic effects of IED attacks on the livelihoods of the people of Mandera East Sub-County. The study was based on Johan Galtung model. The study employed a descriptive survey design in which detailed information, both quantitative and qualitative was sought through questionnaires and interviews. The study was limited to Mandera East Sub-County, which has a population of 159, 638. The sampled respondents were 395 household heads. Quantitative data were analyzed and presented in form of figures and tables, while qualitative data were classified into major themes based on objectives and presented in verbatim. It was established that that indeed IED attacks had affected the economic lives of the people largely in both formal and informal sectors. As such, it is recommended that economic empowerment be given priority in the area.


Keywords: IEDs, economic effects, IED attacks, livelihoods of the people, Mandera East Sub-County


Edition: Volume 9 Issue 7, July 2020,


Pages: 1202 - 1209


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