International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
Call for Papers | Fully Refereed | Open Access | Double Blind Peer Reviewed

ISSN: 2319-7064


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Research Paper | Health and Medical Sciences | Egypt | Volume 12 Issue 8, August 2023


The Extrapulmonary Clinical Manifestations among Patients with Different Grades of COVID-19 Severity

Marwan N. Mohamed | Emad Eldin Aly | Maha M. El-Kholy | Reham M. El-Morshedy


Abstract: Background: Several epidemiological studies show that COVID-19 has a multisystem disease presentation, as well as a respiratory condition. The correlation between the extrapulmonary manifestations and the severity of the disease addressed in few retrospective studies and did not involve multiple systems. This study aims to identify the extrapulmonary clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 cases in different grades of SARS-CoV-2 severity. Methods: It is a prospective observational study that has been conducted at Assiut University hospitals. It included 445 participants were diagnosed positive with COVID-19 based on PCR test (208 females and 237 males). They were categorized into four groups according to severity of illness; mild group (n=255), moderate group (n=60), severe group (n= 58), and critical group (n=29). Results: The highest COVID infection rates were found in the age group of 70 to 80 years (19.6%). Most critical cases of the COVID- 19 infection observed in the age range of 80 to 89 years (48.3%). Moreover, the higher COVID-19 infection was seen in males (53.3%). Smokers were (32.8%) in COVID-19 patients, the critical and severe cases had higher smoking rates (65.5% and 60.3%, respectively). The most encountered comorbid conditions among COVID-19 patients were diabetes (23.8%), followed by hypertension (14.4%), and ischemic heart disease (12.8%). The most common extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 in this study were heart failure (14.8%), headache (57.3), smell impairment (41.3%), impaired consciousness (17.8), abdominal pain (31.3 %), nausea/vomiting (9.5%), hematuria (18.7%), albuminuria (15.7%), acute kidney injury (increase creatinine) (8.5%), leukocytosis (26.7%), thrombocytopenia (17.3%), lymphocytosis (25.7 %), raised C-Reactive Protein (53.9%), anemia (36%), lymphopenia (36%), ketoacidosis (8.8%) and thyrotoxicosis (2.7%). Conclusion: The incidence of extrapulmonary manifestations showed statistically significant difference among different grades of COVID-19 severity.


Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, extrapulmonary manifestations


Edition: Volume 12 Issue 8, August 2023,


Pages: 752 - 757


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