Muhammad Tariq, Abdul Aziz, Muhammad Shafiq, Muhammad Sajjad, Muhammad Mansoor Iqbal, Bashir Muhammad
Abstract: The increasing demand has open the reach field to develop low grade ore deposits which were either technically impossible to develop or have serious environmental sequences or both. Black shale deposits are one of the low grade but of immense quantity reserves in the world. In Pakistan black shale deposits occur in Balakot, Kaghan Valley, and Jhelum Valley in AJK and Tarbela in Ghandgarh Range Khyber Pakthunkhawa (KP). The physical, chemical, mineralogical, radiometric and biological characterization of Chimiari black shale was carried out. The sample was ground to 72 mesh. The physical properties like color, streak, texture, moisture contents, hardness, specific gravity, voids ratio and porosity were studied. A low level -activity of 40 CPS was detected with the help of Macpher scintillation counter. In order to identify the minerals thin sections were studied and XRD was performed. The minerals identified are quartz, illite (a dioctahedral mica-mineral), K-feldspar, calcite and pyrite as the main minerals of black shale sample. Then the sample of black shale was chemically analyzed for SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, K2O, SO3, V2O5, MnO2, TiO2, Rb2O, ZnO, CuO and C (Total) by XRF technique and comparison was made with natural average earth crust composition to see which minerals have been up graded. Finally the presence of some rod-shaped, motile and aerobic bacteria in the black shale ore sample was observed under the phase-contrast microscope at X100 magnification.
Keywords: black shale, Chimiari, minerals, identification