Downloading: Concentration of Fluoride in Different Sources for Human Consumption in Kirkuk City-Northern Iraq
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
www.ijsr.net | Open Access | Fully Refereed | Peer Reviewed International Journal

ISSN: 2319-7064



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Concentration of Fluoride in Different Sources for Human Consumption in Kirkuk City-Northern Iraq

Kameran Shakur Hussain

Abstract: Throughout the world, dentists recognise that fluoride is the most effective caries-preventive agent. The major sources of exposure to fluoride are drinking water, dental products and food. In this study, the quantity of fluoride in the samples was analysed using a fluoride selective electrode. This study aimed to estimate the percentage of fluoride in seven types of toothpaste in the Iraqi market, tap water from seven different locations, eight brands of packaged drinking water and groundwater. The study found that the percentage of total fluoride (TF) was (1025.6543.73 ppm) in Iraqi commercial brands of toothpaste and the percentage of total soluble fluoride (TSF) was (996.6035.44 ppm) in packaged drinking water, (0.131 mg/L) in tap water and (0.144 mg/L) in groundwater. All the samples obtained from the study area were found to have a low quantity of fluoride (0.5 mg/l). None of the samples were within the permissible World Health Organization (WHO) standard for drinking water (0.51.5 mg/l).

Keywords: toothpaste, groundwater, drinking water, food, fluoride selective electrode



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