International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
Call for Papers | Fully Refereed | Open Access | Double Blind Peer Reviewed

ISSN: 2319-7064

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Letter to the Editor | Genomic Sciences and Bioinformatics | Senegal | Volume 13 Issue 1, January 2024 | Rating: 4.7 / 10

Harnessing the Power of Next Generation Sequencing to Decipher Helicobacter pylori Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and Genetics in Sub-Saharan Africa

Dr. Yakhya Dieye

Abstract: Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is one of man's most successful bacterial colonizers. It has been associated with this host for over 100, 000 years and often infecting it for lifetime. It is estimated that 50% of the world population are infected by Hp. However, this prevalence is highly variable ranging from <10% to >90% with large differences between countries and between communities within the same country. Hp infection is asymptomatic in the majority of cases. In a small proportion of individuals, the infection leads to various diseases including peptic ulcers, chronic atrophic gastritis, gastric cancers, and gut lymphoma. Study of Hp biology from since discovery by Warren and Marshall in 1982 was associated with enigmas that are still being addressed. In low-income-countries of the world, one of these puzzles, which partly persists, is the association of high Hp prevalence and low incidence of gastric cancer. There are several factors in play regarding Hp pathogenesis including environment, diet, host and bacterial genetics. However, it remains unclear how these factors act and interact with each other. It is now well established that gastric cancer caused by Hp depends on the presence of the cag pathogenicity island which codes for CagA, classified as a primary carcinogen. Other virulence factors involved in Hp pathogenesis have been identified. In fact, Hp strains can be classified into two groups on the basis of two important virulence factors. Virulent strains, known as type I, possess the cag pathogenicity island and express an active form (s1/m1) of the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA), while avirulent type II strains lack the cag PAI and express a benign form (s2/m2) of VacA. AlthoughHp is now formally classified as a true pathogen, the association of cag-negative, non-carcinogenic type II strains with possible benefits is still debated.

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, gastric cancer, cag pathogenicity island, VacA, global prevalence

Edition: Volume 13 Issue 1, January 2024,

Pages: 1248 - 1249

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