International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
Call for Papers | Fully Refereed | Open Access | Double Blind Peer Reviewed

ISSN: 2319-7064

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Study Papers | History | India | Volume 12 Issue 10, October 2023

Creation of Jharkhand State: Issues of Environment and Identity

Dr. Niraj K Singh

Abstract: The Chhotanagpur region, encompassing present-day Jharkhand, parts of West Bengal, Orissa, and Madhya Pradesh, served as a hotbed for revolts from the early days of British colonial rule. This area was endowed with abundant natural resources, including forests and minerals, which initially attracted the colonial administration. They exerted control through measures like designating 'reserved' and 'protected' forests, enacting various tenancy laws, and providing support to contractors and moneylenders. Subsequently, missionaries infiltrated the region, establishing educational and medical centres, and seeking to propagate Christianity. This missionary endeavour resulted in a significant portion of the tribal population converting to Christianity. The combination of missionary work and expanded educational opportunities raised awareness among the tribal population about their rights and the exploitation of their resources, leading to a series of revolts during the colonial era, including the Kol uprising, Bhil uprising, Santhal rebellion, and Munda rebellion, among others. The political consciousness spurred by both colonial activities and the national movement gave rise to various socio-political groups such as the Chhotanagpur Unnati Samaj, Adibasi Mahasabha, and Jharkhand Party, which frequently advocated for a distinct identity for the tribals of Chhotanagpur. The demand for a separate entity somewhat subsided with the advent of independence, as efforts were made to safeguard the rights of the tribal population through the establishment of a secular government and by incorporating provisions in the 5th and 6th schedules of the Indian constitution. Nevertheless, the aspiration for a distinct entity for the tribal populace of the Chhotanagpur region eventually culminated in the creation of the state of Jharkhand in 2000, which was carved out of Bihar.

Keywords: Chhotanagpur, missionaries, Santhal and Munda rebellions, Adibasi Mahasabha, Jharkhand

Edition: Volume 12 Issue 10, October 2023,

Pages: 633 - 637

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