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Research Paper | Environmental Engineering | Pakistan | Volume 11 Issue 9, September 2022
To Quantify the Heavy Metals Uptake from Soil using Phytoremediation Process for Different Contaminant Concentrations
Abstract: Heavy metals contamination affects a large proportion of the world population, mostly in developing countries where environmental policies are either non - existent or rarely enforced due to which several health - related problems are abundant. To reduce the contamination levels in soils, various chemical, physical, and biological methods are utilized. Among biological methods a popular method is phytoremediation in which plants species are utilized that can absorb heavy metals from soil as part of the nutrition Intake. A recent study indicated that the removal capability of typha latifolia, a plant species commonly used for phytoremediation, is related with concentration of heavy metals in the soil and/or irrigation water, but the study remained inconclusive regarding precise characterization of this effect, due to small sample size and lack of control on the contamination of heavy metals. In this study, the effect of concentration of lead, chromium, nickel, and copper on the extraction efficiency of typha latifolia is characterized, following a careful regimen of irrigation to supply exact quantities of heavy metals. Several specimens of typha latifolia were grown in pots under laboratory conditions and irrigated using predetermined quantity of clean water with added known concentrations of heavy metals, daily for a period of ninety days. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the amounts of the heavy metals before and after the irrigation period to estimate the amounts of heavy metals absorbed by the plants. Concentration increased heavy metals extraction efficiency from the soil using thypa latifolia specie. Also result shows a trend line between different heavy metals removal by plant species as we increased concentration the efficiency also increased. By finding the value of P our results were more than 99% in confidence interval and no result was obtained which proves our hypothesis incorrect. The equations and specifically the R2 value further strengthen our findings as indicator used for authenticity of calculated results. Overall result obtained for heavy metal removal was above 50% for low concentration and increased up to 80% with the increase in concentration of heavy metal in irrigation water. From the previous studies it is concluded that the heavy metals concentration has impact on the removal efficiency of heavy metals from the soil using thypa latifolia specie. But no specific attention was drawn towards the removal efficiency compared with the increase or decrease of the heavy metal?s concentration. Our study focused on relation between concentration of heavy metals and removal efficiency. It was concluded from statistical analysis and graphical representation that direct relation is exist between the removal efficiency and heavy metals concentrations for the said study. We also made the comparison amongst the heavy metal?s remediation using thypa latifolia species based on which we suggest the use of thypa latifolia for maximum remediated heavy metal. Further research is required to determine when the relation of concentration of heavy metals and removal efficiency will reverse. In addition, utilizing several other plants species and heavy metals will further strengthen the result authentication statistically.
Keywords: Heavy Metal, Lead, phytoremediation process
Edition: Volume 11 Issue 9, September 2022,
Pages: 1054 - 1061