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Review Papers | Pharmacology Science | India | Volume 11 Issue 6, June 2022
Human Monkeypox Disease: Insight into Pathophysiology and Management
Dr. Ajith JS | Vivek Gaikwad | Akash Janrao
Abstract: Monkey pox is a smallpox like disease that is caused by infection with monkey pox virus. Monkey pox virus belongs to the orthopoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae. This disease is pre - dominantly found in central and western African rain forest. Human monkey pox is a zoonosis disease that is transmitted from animals to human and has flu - like symptoms fever, malaise, back pain, headache, and a distinctive rash, which are remarkably similar to common kinds of smallpox. Gives this clinical spectrum, it?s crucial to exclude out smallpox with a different diagnosis. Human monkeypox has no approved treatments; however the smallpox vaccine can provide protection. Monkey pox, thought to be an uncommon and self - limiting disease has received little attention since its discovery in 1958. Concern has recently been expressed regarding its rise, as well as the occasionally severe clinical presentation that resembles with smallpox. Smallpox is a devasting disease that has been eradicated worldwide by vaccination 40 years ago. Back in the day human monkey pox disease captured the attention when 3 individual patients in the UK were diagnosed with a rare disease, scientists were shocked. The number of instances of human monkey pox and their spread across the west and central Africa has grown in recent years. The human monkey pox virus replicates at the inoculation site after entering via any route (oropharynx, nasopharynx, or intradermal). It then spreads to local lymph nodes. Following that, viral spread and seeding of other organs occurs as a result of an initial viremia. This is the incubation period, which usually lasts 7 to 14 days, with a maximum of 21 days. The preferred laboratory test for monkey pox is viral DNA detection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The best diagnostic specimens are directly from the rash ? skin, fluid or crusts or biopsy where feasible because Antigen and antibody detection methods do not differentiate between orthopoxviruses they may be ineffective. The transmission of this human monkey pox can be prevented by isolating yourself at home and talking to a health professional if you have symptoms, avoiding any face to face, or skin to skin contact including sexual contact with anyone who has symptoms. This review gives a brief idea about pathophysiology of monkey pox, how it spread, which treatment available on it, its affect all over the world and which preventive measure we can take to avoid from such life threating diseases.
Keywords: Monkeypox, orthopoxviruses, Poxviridae, Smallpox
Edition: Volume 11 Issue 6, June 2022,
Pages: 989 - 992