International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
Call for Papers | Fully Refereed | Open Access | Double Blind Peer Reviewed

ISSN: 2319-7064

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Case Studies | Physics Science | Sudan | Volume 12 Issue 1, January 2023

Assessment Pollution Levels Associated with Heavy Metals Existed in Water, Soil, and Leaves of Plant in Mayo-Kebbi Ouest-Republic of Chad-(2022)

Omar Bashir | Faycal. Ghourbal | Dr. Y. I. Halawlaw | Dr. A. Abakr | Nafisa Bader Eldeen

Abstract: This study aims to assess pollution levels associated with heavy metals according to their concentration in water, soil and plant samples that have been taken from the mining area in state of Mayo-Kebbi Ouest in republic of Chad. The samples were taken from two locations, inside mine (mining area) (site 1) and outside of astrologer 20km away (site 2). Samples have been analyzed in laboratories of petroleum ministry in Khartoum city, by using Fluorescent X-ray Spectrometer (X-MET5000). According to laboratory analysis, the pollution index in water sample ranged between (2.8-3.4), whereas, the pollution status in the water sample ranged from serious to very serious pollution. This is attributed to the high concentrations of most elements above the level allowed by the World Health Organization (WHO). The highest concentrations of iron (Fe2), chromium (Cr2), tungsten (W2) and nobelium (Ni2) respectively were observed in site 2. While same elements in site 1 recorded the low concentration. As for the soil sample, an irregular decrease in the concentration of some elements is observed, which caused decrease in pollution degree. When comparing the values of pollution index occurring in both water and soil for each element separately, it was noted that the percentage of pollution in water sample was greater than the percentage of pollution in the soil sample for the two sites. Where the percentage of water pollution in two sites resulting from tungsten (W1, 2) reached 99.9%, while the percentage of water pollution in site 2 resulting from iron (Fe1) reached 98%. Grade of pollution in plant sample is observed very low in both two sites, except element of tungsten (W1). Evaluation both of ecological risk factor (ErF) and risk degree in soil sample for two locations, showed that both of lead (Pb2) and zinc (Zn2) reached very high risk.

Keywords: Concentration, Heavy Metals HMs, Mine, Mayo-kebbi, Republic of Chad, pollution index, ecological risk index, Risk degree

Edition: Volume 12 Issue 1, January 2023,

Pages: 394 - 400

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