International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
Call for Papers | Fully Refereed | Open Access | Double Blind Peer Reviewed

ISSN: 2319-7064


Downloads: 2 | Views: 100 | Weekly Hits: ⮙1 | Monthly Hits: ⮙1

Analysis Study Research Paper | Political Science | Zimbabwe | Volume 11 Issue 11, November 2022 | Rating: 5.1 / 10


Challenges of the Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in Creating Democratic Space and Guaranteeing Peace and Security in Zimbabwe

Morrison Chiwundura [2] | Murindwa Rutanga [3]


Abstract: The history of Zimbabwe cannot be complete without mentioning incidents of conflict and violence. The pre-colonial era was characterised by conflict related to conquest and expansion of political power in form of fiefdoms, chiefdoms, kingdoms and empires. This phenomenon ended with the British colonial invasion which was marked by destructive wars by the colonisers versus the indigenes. The subsequent revolutions were in cultural and political forms. The colonial era was replete with oppression, exploitation by the colonial regime and resistance against it. These persistent anticolonial movements finally yielded results and Zimbabwe got its independence in 1980. The liberation struggles saw a lot of people lose their lives. This however did not end the conflict. Instead, the independence era became characterised by internal fights for hegemony between the two major political parties-the Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) and the Zimbabwe African People's Union-Patriotic Front (ZAPU-PF). However, the turn of the new millennium ushered in the country a new and unique mode of violence. Zimbabwe faced a lot of political challenges which resulted in political polarisation of the country. These led to an unprecedented mode of political violence. These were worsened by the Western economic sanctions. A combination of all these and other factors resulted in undermining Zimbabwe's economy and threw the country into disarray. This left the ordinary people marginalized and reduced to abject poverty. It created a fertile ground for the NGOs to mushroom in the country with pseudo promises of creating democratic space for the Zimbabweans to participate in politics without fear of intimidation. These NGOs were also attempting to create an alternative to the existing political power structure. They postured themselves as peace builders in the society that had been infested by political violence.


Keywords: Democracy, Conflict, political violence, Opposition Political Party, Peace building


Edition: Volume 11 Issue 11, November 2022,


Pages: 1456 - 1468


How to Download this Article?

Type Your Valid Email Address below to Receive the Article PDF Link


Verification Code will appear in 2 Seconds ... Wait

Top