International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
Call for Papers | Fully Refereed | Open Access | Double Blind Peer Reviewed

ISSN: 2319-7064


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Research Paper | Geography | India | Volume 11 Issue 11, November 2022


Water Quality Assessment of Springs in the Srinagar Valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India

Shaifali Bhandari | K. S. Bisht


Abstract: Spring water in the Himalayas is often considered holy and assumed to be always fit for drinking. However, a scientific analysis of drinking water quality is essential for vital springs that feed thousands. In this work, we assess the drinking water quality of 11 springs in Alaknanda valley at Srinagar, Garhwal Himalaya. The water quality index (WQI) is estimated based on 11 physical parameters that are compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS). An average pH of 7.22 is estimated at all the springs while other parameter averages, such as TDS (403), Chloride (1.87), Total hardness (237), Calcium (77), Magnesium (11.24), Total alkalinity (203), Nitrate (1.24), Sulphates (26), Fluoride (0.19) and Iron (0.18), are within desirable limits. The WQI indicates that out of the 11 only 2 springs are of very good quality, 7 are good quality and 2 are moderately good quality. The results also show that the excellent WQI is assessed in those springs which headwater zone is non - residential areas where as WQI is moderately good near urban residential zones as compared to non - residential areas. Prominent springs among them are Srikot, Bhaktiyana, Kamleswar, and Hanuman temples. These four springs are just below the residential area. The natural drainage is suspended by the local people by constructing residential houses and around springs? land is encroached and mismanaged by the local people. Underground percolation of sewerage water of each residential house is also one of the causes of the deteriorating of spring water and needs proper purification before use. This insight points to increased contamination because of anthropogenic activities.


Keywords: Spring, water quality, parameter, assessment, anthropogenic activities


Edition: Volume 11 Issue 11, November 2022,


Pages: 1051 - 1058


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