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Review Papers | Oncology Science | India | Volume 11 Issue 11, November 2022
Cancer Metastasis in Correlation with Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition and Tumor Microenvironment: A Review Article
Nilanjan Sahu | Dr. Samarth Shukla
Abstract: Human body is composed of distinct types of cells having different biological functions. In this review we would focus on two types of cells-Epithelial Cells and Mesenchymal cells. Epithelial cells are tightly adhered to the cell junctions by the intercellular adhesion complexes unlike the mesenchymal cells which are nonpolar and expresses greater mobility between the cells. The two cells are involved in the process known as Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). According to initial studies this process was only noted in the embryonic stage but later this phenomenon was attributed to many other cellular processes that required greater mobility and increased migratory capacity of the cells. The term ?Transition? in EMT signifies reversibility, EMT-MET. EMT is classified into three types according to the process involved-gastrulation and embryogenesis, regeneration and wound healing, and Carcinogenesis (metastasis, malignancy). Cancer Metastasis is an overly complex phenomenon which includes many predisposing factors. EMT is one of the major predisposing factors in cancer metastasis and is highly associated with tumor invasiveness, malignancy, and poor prognosis. EMT and tumor microenvironment both play a synergistic role and are linked to aggressive forms of cancer including its subtypes and various other types of cancer. The tumor microenvironment comprises of various cells of inflammatory and immune origin and extracellular matrix components-Tumor associated macrophages TAMs, Cancer associated fibroblasts CAFs, Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), Tumor associated neutrophils TANs. EMT and TME mediated cancer metastasis include various distinct signaling pathways which express biomarkers such as CD 31, PECAM-1, FSP1-alpa SMA, TGF-beta, R-Smads. Inflammatory cells mediated metastatic progression includes-TNF, MPN-JAK2 mutation, CCL2-MCP1. At molecular level in ECM beta-Catenin mediated EMT results in poor prognosis. The other factors that regulate EMT and are highly correlated with TME include: Chronic inflammation and neoplastic clone emergence resulting in malignant transformation, Oncogenic viruses which cause mutation in P53 and Rb gene, Metabolic syndrome, Stem cell like characteristics in EMT cell progression, Snail pathway, paraneoplastic syndrome, Drug-chemical induced carcinogenesis, and epigenetic factors. Clinical approach with TME and EMT Biomark's open a wide arena of therapeutic expansion.
Keywords: EMT, carcinogenesis, tumor microenvironment, poor prognosis, signaling pathway, biomarkers
Edition: Volume 11 Issue 11, November 2022,
Pages: 777 - 784