International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
Call for Papers | Fully Refereed | Open Access | Double Blind Peer Reviewed

ISSN: 2319-7064




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Research Paper | Psychology | India | Volume 11 Issue 10, October 2022 | Rating: 5 / 10


Dynamic Role of Negative Affect and Craving as Precipitants of Relapse among Drug Abusers

Harpreet Singh [9] | Dr. Mamta Sharma


Abstract: Substance abuse is commonly thought of as a "chronically relapsing condition" (Witkiewitz & Marlatt, 2004), with both youth and adults returning to substance abuse at high rates after treatment. Studies have shown that 66% of adult addicts and 75% of young addicts relapse within six months of stopping addiction treatment (Njoroge, 2018). Relapse can be attributed to several internal and external causes including mental illnesses, withdrawal, cognitive deficits, boredom, unemployment, defective coping strategies, interpersonal conflict, social pressure, lack of support, stigmatization, negative affect, craving, lack of leisure activities, and treatment facilities (Ramo and Brown, 2008; Njoroge, 2018). The purpose of the study was to compare negative affect, craving, and a number of relapses as precipitants in the relapse process in young adults and middleadults. Methodology: The research used a pre-post experimental controlled follow-up study design to verify the hypotheses. The study included young adult (n = 86) and middleadult (n = 54) male participants who were taking in-patient treatment for relapse. In addition to collecting sociodemographic data, other factors such as craving, and negative affect were measured using standardized instruments including a brief substance craving scale, and a positive and negative affect schedule scale. The data were statistically analyzed. Results: Disparity in sociodemographic factors were seen in both groups with young adults being more likely to be single, unemployed, and belonging to lower socioeconomic status. Among factors associated with relapse, the middleadult group scored significantly higher on negative affect, (P =.005). The most common reason cited for relapse in the young adult group was a desire for a positive mood and the middleadult reported negative mood and lack of family support as the primary precursors. However, the young adult group reported external pressure to use as the prominent factor of relapse. Conclusion: This study highlights the role of craving, negative affect, and a number of relapses as determinants in drug dependence and relapse. Relapse was found to be a complex multifactorial phenomenon. Despite differences in presentation, somewhat similar relapse mechanisms were seen in both groups


Keywords: Relapse, drug abuse, sociodemographic factors, negative affect, craving, positive and negative affect schedule, brief substance craving scale, duration of drug abuse, number of relapses


Edition: Volume 11 Issue 10, October 2022,


Pages: 1154 - 1160



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