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Research Paper | Environmental Science Studies | Nigeria | Volume 10 Issue 6, June 2021
Comparative Assessment of Proximate Analysis, Minerals Content and Heavy Metal Accumulation in Ripe and Unripe Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum chinenses and Capsicum annuum using Mile 12 International Market as a Case Study
Adu A.A. | Aderinola O.J. | Avoseh O. | Onewo L.D. | Sylvester S.D. | Emmanuel O.F. | Adeboyejo O.A
Abstract: This study investigated the proximate analyses of nutritional and heavy metal content of ripe and unripe in three pepper varieties (Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum annum and Capsicum chinenses) gotten from Mile 12 market, Lagos state. Pepper has been used for thousands of years as spices in food to enhance the flavour, colour and aroma of food. They are added at a substantial quantity to produce a characteristic taste of cuisine in Nigeria and other parts of the world. They are also known for their preservative and medicinal value. Raw data handling were as specified in American Public Health Association (APHA), American Water Works Association (AWWA) and Water Environment Federation (WEF).Means of the samples were determined using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The result of the analysis showed that the proximate composition of Capsicum annum was significantly (p<0.05) higher than Capsicum chinenses and Capsicum frutescens in moisture, crude protein, crude fat, total carotenoids and ash contents. Capsicum chinenses was significantly (p<0.05) higher than Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens carbohydrate and sugar contents. Capsicum frutescens was significantly (p<0.05) higher than Capsicum annuum and Capsicum chinenses in fibre contents. Mineral composition showed that Capsicum annuum was significantly (p<0.05) higher Capsicum frutescens and Capsicum chinense in calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium contents. Capsicum chinenses was significantly (p<0.05) higher than Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens in iron and manganese contents. Capsicum frutescens was significantly (p<0.05) higher than Capsicum annuum and Capsicum chinenses in phosphorus and zinc contents. Heavy metal contents showed that Capsicum frutescens and C. chinenses have same values for copper and significantly (p<0.05) higher than Capsicum annuum. Capsicum frutescens was significantly (p<0.05) higher than Capsicum annuum and Capsicum chinenses in selenium contents. And, they all are insignificantly (p>0.05) different in lead, chromium and cobalt. The results indicate that unripe Capsicum spp has better nutritional values than the ripe Capsicum spp. Although, both are used as major condiments in preparation of traditional diets in Nigeria and can be utilized as sources of protein supplement, valuable minerals and dietary antioxidants. They can serve as scavengers of free radicals reported to be associated with occurrence of chronic and degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. Hence, their cultivation and consumption should be encouraged.
Keywords: Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum chinenses, ripe and unripe, Heavy Metals, Proximate values, Lagos
Edition: Volume 10 Issue 6, June 2021,
Pages: 319 - 326