International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
Call for Papers | Fully Refereed | Open Access | Double Blind Peer Reviewed

ISSN: 2319-7064

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Review Papers | Social Science | India | Volume 9 Issue 6, June 2020

Indo-Pak War of 1971 and Forced Migration from Chhamb Sector

Colonel Balwan Singh Nagial Retd

Abstract: Indo-Pak war of 1971 resulted in forced migration of the people from Chhamb sector of Jammu region in Jammu & Kashmir. When Indian Army started building up in anticipation then internal displacement was started in the first week of September 1971. These people perceived this migration as the temporary one as it had happened before in 1947-48 and 1965 wars with Pakistan. They left their homes with whatever little they could gather in a state of hurry, panic and terror. People even left behind their old, infirm, pet animals and heavy loads in the hope to return back. During war these people were left to fend themselves and lived under the shadow of guns. Ceasefire was declared on 16 Dec 1971 and at that time Chhamb Sector under Pakistan’s occupation. Meantime, the Govt. of India in consultation with the Govt. of Jammu and Kashmir decided to shift these Displaced Persons (hereafter referred to as DPs) to camps at Manwal and Kishanpur, about 70 kms from Jammu on the Dhar road near Udhampur. They were impossibly cramped in tiny tents. A family of 5-6 persons was a given a tent covering about 13 Sq. ft area with no facilities whatsoever of bathing, cooking, toileting etc. They had no other option but to cope with these sufferings by surviving on their limited means of livelihood. It impacted them socially, economically and psychologically. Most of the people who suffered this displacement were senior citizens, women and children. Displacement, forced women to deal with the harsh realities of war. Suffering became more serious when the lone bread earner was lost. Women continued to be responsible for procuring and preparing of food, rearing children and looking after the elders and the infirm of the family. Faced with fuel and food shortages, lack of electricity, shortage of medicines and lack of safe water, these women faced a daily fight for their survival. Unemployment, loss of income sources, inflation and reduction in actual wages made people more vulnerable

Keywords: War, Displacement, Unemployment, Camps, Displaced Persons, Forced migration, Education, Health, Hygiene & Sanitation, Sexual abuses, Psychological disorders, Cross border firings, Disruptions

Edition: Volume 9 Issue 6, June 2020,

Pages: 1095 - 1105

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