International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
Call for Papers | Fully Refereed | Open Access | Double Blind Peer Reviewed

ISSN: 2319-7064


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Review Papers | Zoology and Environmental Biology | India | Volume 12 Issue 12, December 2023


Climate Change and Future of Animals

Namrata Misra


Abstract: Climate change is the prominent challenge that the world is facing now. Pollution, Population explosion, deforestation, rapid urbanization, industrialization, vehicular emissions are responsible for the gradual warming of our globe day by day. Global warming is affecting the seasonal cycle and causing climate change which is felt by us as early unset of summer, late winter & irregularity in rain, cyclone, storm etc. Climate change is degrading the nature and natural harmony in various ways. The most affected regions are the polar glaciers, sea ice corridors, coral beds. The arctic is being warmed up more rapidly than any other region on the planet and the result is fastest temperature and melting of the glaciers. Rain on snow or winter rain is another phenomena which blocks the access to food for the arctic herbivores. Sea ice corridors are the breeding & feeding ground for many species such as polar bear, seals, penguins, arctic fox, snow hare etc, but due to increasing temperature & decreasing the snow the species are facing various problems in their feeding, breeding & haunting activity. So their number is being decreased day by day. In order to escape from this, some species are getting shifted towards pole but that is not a permanent solution to the problem. Ocean warming putting severe impact on the coral reefs causing degradation and a 70-90% decline in the growth rate of corals. Coral reefs are the shelter and dwelling place for a number of species of fishes, molluscs, arthropods & annelids also, so the reef destruction will lead to the extinction of those animals also. Increase an atmospheric temperature alters the sex ratio and shifts it towards female sex in turtles which is a threat to the population. Another impact of global warming is the melting of glaciers increasing the sea level and constricting the beach sand beds. In near future those beds are going to vanish, which is severely affecting the turtles which need sand to lay eggs. So there is a possibility of shrinking in their number up to a threatening level. Ocean acidification, cyclone more precipitation & ocean current alteration have also impact upon turtles. Many migratory bird species have advanced their spring arrival during the latest decades, most probably due to climate change. Although there is a larger change in the migratory behavior of short distance migrants in comparison to long distance migrants, both are suffering from the rising temperature. Not only animals, but also humans get affected from climate change. Some primary health concerns are cold and heat related illness, respiratory & cardiovascular illness, increased occupational health risks, stress due to disasters, allergy, Asthma, water & food borne contaminations, skin damage & cancer due to UV exposure etc. Above effects of global warming strongly indicating towards a mass extinction of about a quarter of species in near future. Some changes also could be seen in animals to adapt the climate like darkening of skin/ fur, thinning of fur coat, decrease in fat content (subcutaneous) of body, shifting of habitat & breeding grounds, irregularities in migratory behavior of birds, decrease in number of animals etc.


Keywords: Global Warming, Arctic Degradation, Coral Reef Decline, Wildlife Impact, Migratory Birds Shift, Sea ice corridors, Rain on ice


Edition: Volume 12 Issue 12, December 2023,


Pages: 72 - 79


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