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Research Paper | Medical Microbiology | Nigeria | Volume 8 Issue 9, September 2019
Assessment of Physicochemical Qualities, Heavy Metals Concentration and Bacterial Pathogens in Elechi Creek, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Abstract: Escherichia coli is one of the most frequent causes of many common bacterial infections, such as urinary tract infection (UTI), cholangitis, diarrhoea, bacteraemia, neonatal meningitis and pneumonia. Assessment of physicochemical parameters, heavy metals and bacterial pathogens in Elechi Creek, Port Harcourt, Nigeria was carried out. One hundred and fourteen (114) water samples were collected for the analysis of physicochemical parameters, heavy metals and bacterial detection (36, 18 and 60, respectively). The physicochemical parameters were carried out periodically and seasonally; periodic variations were carried out in the morning and evening hours, while the seasonal variations were carried out in November (the end of rainy season), April (the start of rainy season) and July (the middle of rainy season). The heavy metals were analysed only seasonally. Potential hydrogen (pH), Temperature, Salinity, Total dissolved solid (TDS), Dissolved oxygen (DO) and Biological oxygen demand (BOD) were the physicochemical parameters analysed. The results showed that all the parameters, except the Temperature fell within the recommended values. For example, in the mornings, the highest mean Temperature value was 29.33±0.21, while the highest mean values in the evenings ranged from 29.80±30.43±0.49. The highest mean values were obtained in the evening of April (30.43±0.49), followed by the evening of November (29.93±0.15). A significant difference was observed both in April and July (p=0.019; t=-3.836 and p=0.011; t=-4.427, respectively). The results obtained from the heavy metals (Cadmium, Mercury, Lead, Arsenic, Chromium and Nickel) analysis did not fall within the recommended values. According to the results of the Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC), the highest mean values were obtained in morning and evening of July (5.18 x (106) and 5.79 x (105), respectively). The highest HPC observed in July could be as a result of heavy rainfall during the season as erosion carries and empties every dirt in the water body. The amount of nutrients from dump sites located very close to the water body may have contributed to the high HPC. Coliforms were reported in this study and the highest number was observed in the evening of week 3, day 1 (21 MPN/100 ml). Escherichia coli was isolated from all the water samples, which was not within the standard recommended values of zero by World Health Organization (WHO). The antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed on 128 isolates of E. coli and the results revealed that all the isolates of E. coli were susceptible to Meropenem, Imipenem, Tigecycline, Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin and Colistin, while 28 (21.71 %) isolates were resistant to Cefoxitin. The Multiple Drug Resistance (MDR) isolates were 7 (5.47 %). Isolates that showed Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Index (MARI) of 0.0 were 97 (75.78 %). However, the isolates showed MARI of 0.1 were 20 (15.63 %) ; that is, isolates that were resistant to only one antibiotic.
Keywords: Escherichia coli, Multiple Drug Resistance, Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Index, Seasonal, Periodic, Antibiotics, Heavy metals, Physicochemical parameters, Pollution, Water bodies, Antibiotics, Resistance
Edition: Volume 8 Issue 9, September 2019,
Pages: 437 - 442