International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
Call for Papers | Fully Refereed | Open Access | Double Blind Peer Reviewed

ISSN: 2319-7064

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Research Paper | Education Management | Indonesia | Volume 7 Issue 9, September 2018

Mitchondria Structure and the Intra-Mitochondrial ATP Formation Process

Liliana Puspa Sari [2] | Deni Rahman Marpaung

Abstract: There are two systems of energy formation in the body, namely anaerobic energy system and aerobic energy system. Anaerobic energy systems include ATP-PC (phosphagen) and anaerobic glycolysis (lactic acid). While the aerobic energy system includes the krebs cycle and the electron transport system. The process of the aerobic energy system (krebs cycle and electron transport system) is in the mitochondria and the anaerobic energy system (ATP-PC and LA) occurs outside the mitochondria, namely in sarcoplasma. Mitochondria are one of the cell organelles. The size of mitochondria is about 0.2-1 m in diameter. The filamentous mitochondria vary in length up to 10 m. The main role of mitochondria is as a cell energy plant that produces energy in the form of ATP. Energy produced in mitochondria through aerobic processes. Carbohydrate metabolism will end in mitochondria when pyruvic acid is transported and oxidized by O2 to CO2 and water. The mitochondrial structure consists of four main parts, namely the outer membrane (outer membrane), the inner membrane (inner membrane), the space between the membranes (inter membrane), and the matrix located on the inside of the membrane. The formation of ATP in the mitochondria results from the breakdown of glucose or fatty acids (glyserol) aerobically to pyruvic acid. There are two pathways for intra-mitochondrial ATP formation, namely the Krebs cycle and electron transport system. But before heading into the Krebs cycle and the electron transport system the initial stage of metabolism converts glucose to energy to synthesize ATP and pyruvic acid will take place through a process called glycolysis (Glycolysis). After pyruvic acid is formed from the glycolysis process, then it enters into mitochondria to the cellular respiration process which is divided into 3 main stages, namely Acetyl-CoA production, Acetyl-CoA oxidation process in the citric acid cycle (Citric-Acid Cycle) and Electron Transport Chain (Electron Chain Transfer / Oxidative Phosphorylation). In the aerobic formation process of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) in mitochondria 36 ATP is produced while the anaerobic process will only produce 2 ATP.

Keywords: Atp-Pc, Mitochondria

Edition: Volume 7 Issue 9, September 2018,

Pages: 1177 - 1183

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