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Review Papers | Civil Engineering | India | Volume 3 Issue 8, August 2014
Review on Bioremediation of Heavy Metals with Microbial Isolates and Amendments on Soil Residue
Abstract: Heavy metal pollution is nowadays one of the most important environmental concerns. Anthropogenic activities like metalliferous mining and smelting, agriculture, waste disposal or industry discharge a variety of metals such as Ag, As, Au, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Pd, Pt, Rd, Sn, Th, U and Zn, which can produce harmful effects on human health when they are taken up in amounts that cannot be processed by the organism. Physical and chemical methods have been proposed for the removal of these pollutants. Conventional methods to remediate heavy metals contaminated site are excavation and solidification/ stabilization, these technologies are suitable to control contamination but not permanently remove heavy metals. Nevertheless, they have some disadvantages, among them cost-effectiveness limitations, generation of hazardous by-products or inefficiency. Biological methods solve these drawbacks since they are easy to operate, do not produce secondary pollution. Heavy metals having relatively high density are toxic at low concentration. Microorganisms and plants are usually used for the removal of heavy metals. Process of involvement of microorganisms to reduce pollutant concentration is known as bioremediation which is a natural process and its importance of biodiversity (above or below the ground) is increasingly considered for clean-up of metal contaminated and polluted ecosystem. All the metals are toxic, but some of these are useful in low concentration. These metal toxicity cause serious morbidity and mortality. The bioavailability can be improved by addition of organic nutrients to the soil such as manure, compost, biosolids, which condition the soil and increases the fertility of soil. Bioremediation can be carried out both in aerobic and anaerobic condition. But aerobic conditions prove to be faster compared to that of anaerobic condition. The isolation of heavy metal resistant microorganisms and the understanding of the mechanisms they use in order to remove this kind of pollutants may contribute to the development of improved bioremediation processes. The aim of this work is to study the ability of bioremediation process with microbial isolates and amendments to remove heavy metals from polluted soil residue.
Keywords: Heavy metals, Microorganisms, Bioremediation, Amendments, Soil Residue
Edition: Volume 3 Issue 8, August 2014,
Pages: 118 - 123