Dr. Chandni, Dr. Shailpreet K Sidhu, Dr. Kanwardeep Singh, Dr. Loveena Oberoi, Dr. Sita Malhotra
Abstract: Introduction Acute viral hepatitis (AVH) is a major public health problem in developing nations like India. Both Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) are transmitted through feco-oral route, causing acute viral hepatitis. Despite improving sanitation, health awareness, and socio-economic conditions, these infections continue to occur both in sporadic and epidemic forms in different parts of India. Aims & Objectives The study was conducted to know the seroprevalence of HAV and HEV in the patients presenting with acute viral hepatitis. Methods The retrospective study was conducted in the department of Microbiology, Government Medical College, Amritsar. Samples received from January 2018 to November 2019 were included in the study. A total of 1327 samples were processed in this study. The serum samples were analysed for IgM anti-HAV and IgM anti-HEV for the detection of HAV and HEV respectively, using commercially available ELISA kits. Results The prevalence of HAV and HEV were found to be 15.4 % and 29.7 % respectively. The prevalence of HAV in paediatric age group (79.9 %) was found to be higher as compared to adults (20.1 %). However, the prevalence of HEV was higher in adults (90.4 %) as compared to the paediatric age group (9.6 %). The prevalence of HAV and HEV co- infection was 2.6 %. Among the total, 18 (32.7 %) cases of acute viral hepatitis complicating pregnancy were positive for IgM anti-HEV. Conclusion The prevalence of HEV is much higher than that of HAV which mandates the screening for HEV, especially in pregnant women where outcome of infection is poor. Improving personal hygiene practices, maintaining quality standards for public water supplies and establishing appropriate sewage disposal systems will ensure in reduction of HAV and HEV transmission.
Keywords: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis E, Prevalence, Acute Viral Hepatitis, Coinfection