Dr Naveen S Kulkarni, Dr Samir Jaju
Abstract: BACKGROUND Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in India having variety of hematological manifestations. Reversible peripheral blood abnormalities are commonly associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To investigate the changes of hematological and biochemical parameters in patients affected with pulmonary tuberculosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS 78 patients of pulmonary tuberculosis were included in the study who were sputum positive or diagnosed through chest x-ray findings. Patients who were known case of AIDS or on ATT were excluded from the study. RESULTS Out of 78 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis 79.48 % (62) patients were male and 21.79 % (16) patients were female. Anemia was seen in 69.2 % (54), severe anemia was seen in 7.69 % (6). Our study noted raised ESR in 49 cases (62.8 %). Leukocytosis was seen among 38.4 % (30) patients among which 73.3 % (22) and 26.66 % (8) were male and female respectively. Thrombocytopenia was seen among 11.5 % and thrombocytosis was seen in 11.5 %. Hyponatremia and hypokalemia was observed in 77 % (47) and 22.9 % (14) respectively. CONCLUSION Some hematological and biochemical findings in our study are consistent with previous studies like anemia, ESR and hyponatremia, other parameters like pancytopenia, platelet changes in isolation, altered renal function and hypokalemia may require further evaluation to find out the association with tuberculosis. When there is a clinical suspicion of tuberculosis but without confirmatory evidences in the form of chest x-ray, tissue biopsy and sputum, these hematological and biochemical changes in combination may help in narrowing down the diagnosis. However further studies are needed to find out correlation between hematological, biochemical and clinical parameters in managing tuberculosis.
Keywords: Tuberculosis, anemia, platelets, hyponatremia, hypokalemia