Abstract: Flourosis is the result of fluoride rearranging the crystalline structure of a tooth's enamel as it is still growing. It is evidence of fluoride's potency and ability to cause physiologic changes within the body and raises concerns about similar damage that may be occurring in the bones. Fluoride causes dental fluorosis by damaging the enamel-forming cells, called ameloblasts. The damage to these cells results in a mineralization disorder of the teeth, whereby the porosity of the sub-surface enamel is increased. Over the past 50 years, the prevalence of dental fluorosis has increased quite dramatically in the United States and other fluoridated countries. Not only is the prevalence of fluorosis increasing, but so is its severity. There is a growing body of evidence which indicates that the prevalence and, in some cases, the severity of dental fluorosis is increasing in both fluoridated and non-fluoridated regions. According to recent estimates 2 to 12% of children living in fluoridated communities have dental fluorosis of "esthetic concern". Dental fluorosis, of esthetic concern, is an expensive condition to treat. If left untreated, it can cause embarrassment for school-aged children, resulting in psychological stress and damaged self-esteem.
Keywords: Fluoride, Fluorosis, Dental fluorosis, symptoms, prevalence