International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
Call for Papers | Fully Refereed | Open Access | Double Blind Peer Reviewed

ISSN: 2319-7064


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Doctoral Thesis | Pharmacology Science | India | Volume 12 Issue 7, July 2023 | Rating: 5 / 10


Advanced in vitro Research on Modulation of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α) by Piperine and Pirfenidone on Naloxone Precipitated Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome

Dr. Gurpreet Bawa | Dr. Navneet Khurana | Dr. Ashish Jain


Abstract: The study evaluates the modulation of TNF-alpha (α) by piperine and pirfenidone on opioid withdrawal syndrome in mice. Withdrawal syndrome also called a discontinuation syndrome occurs on discontinuation or reducing certain medications. The sedative withdrawal disorder arises after administration of heroin, morphine, and followed by several days. In human, the signs and symptoms of withdrawal symptoms are stomach cramps, rhinorrhea, perspiring, raised pulse, and expanded circulatory strain, touchiness, dysphoria, hyperalgesia, and a sleeping disorder In this study, we used two models: precipitated and spontaneous withdrawal. Naloxone was administered to precipitate morphine withdrawal symptoms in the precipitated model whereas in case of spontaneous model, morphine was terminated on 6th day after the completion of 5 days morphine administration. Naloxone is the most well-known µ opioid receptor antagonist which is used to precipitate withdrawal symptoms. In the precipitated model, various opioid withdrawal syndromes have been observed, the best response was observed in synergistic effect of both the drugs i.e. pirfenidone and piperine treated group. The effect of each drug at a low dose was noted to be significantly lower than that of the drug at high dose. The combination of pirfenidone and piperine showed the most promising results. The study suggests that the use of both drugs may offer a synergistic effect in managing opioid withdrawal symptoms.


Keywords: Opioid Withdrawal, Piperine, Pirfenidone, TNF - alpha, Naloxone, Precipitated Withdrawal


Edition: Volume 12 Issue 7, July 2023,


Pages: 1708 - 1712


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