International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
Call for Papers | Fully Refereed | Open Access | Double Blind Peer Reviewed

ISSN: 2319-7064


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Review Papers | Medicine | India | Volume 12 Issue 11, November 2023


Cardio-Renal Axis: Internal Medicine Approaches to Tackling Cardiovascular Risk in CKD

Shaik Khalida Begum | VR Hithesh Sri Sai Reddy [4] | C. Prabhakar Raju [11]


Abstract: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a pervasive health challenge globally, intricately linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This review paper explores the intricate interplay between the cardiovascular and renal systems, delving into the Cardio-Renal Axis, and highlights internal medicine approaches to mitigate cardiovascular risks in CKD patients. Recognizing the bidirectional impact of CKD and cardiovascular disease, we aim to synthesize current understanding, identify gaps in knowledge, and propose comprehensive strategies to optimize patient outcomes. The Cardio-Renal Axis forms a complex web of interactions, where impaired renal function not only serves as a consequence but also as a driver of cardiovascular dysfunction. The review elucidates the pathophysiological mechanisms, emphasizing the role of inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction in this bidirectional relationship. Special attention is given to the evolving landscape of biomarkers and imaging modalities that offer insights into early detection and risk stratification. By dissecting the molecular and cellular crosstalk, we aim to provide a foundation for targeted therapeutic interventions. Internal Medicine Strategies for Cardiovascular Risk Mitigation, This section synthesizes evidence-based internal medicine strategies to confront cardiovascular risks in CKD. It encompasses antihypertensive management, glycemic control, lipid-lowering interventions, and novel therapies targeting inflammation and fibrosis. Additionally, the paper explores the integration of lifestyle modifications and patient-centered care in the comprehensive management of CKD patients at risk for cardiovascular events. By amalgamating current clinical guidelines with emerging research, this review strives to offer a roadmap for clinicians navigating the intricate Cardio-Renal Axis, ultimately aiming for enhanced preventive and therapeutic measures in this high-risk patient population.


Keywords: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), Cardiovascular Risk, Nephrology, Anticoagulation Therapy, Thrombosis, Bleeding Complications, Atrial Fibrillation, Deep Vein Thrombosis


Edition: Volume 12 Issue 11, November 2023,


Pages: 1552 - 1555


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