International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
Call for Papers | Fully Refereed | Open Access | Double Blind Peer Reviewed

ISSN: 2319-7064

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Informative Article | Genetics | India | Volume 11 Issue 11, November 2022 | Rating: 4.5 / 10

A Deep Insight on Structure and Organization of Chromosomes and their Genetic Significance in Living Organisms - An Informative Article

Sure Naveen [3]

Abstract: Chromosomes are thread - like structures located inside the nucleus of animal and plant cells. Each chromosome is made of protein and a single molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Passed from parents to offspring, DNA contains the specific instructions that make each type of living creature unique. The term chromosome comes from two Greek words; Chroma (color) and soma (body). Scientists gave this name to chromosomes because they are cell structures, or bodies, that are strongly stained by some colorful dyes used in research. Strasburger first discovered chromosomes in 1875, and the term chromosome was coined by waldeyer in 1888. They have been considered as the physical bases of heredity because they have a special organization, individuality, functions and are capable of self - reproduction. When, the chromosomes of a species are arranged according to their size, shape and structure, then this representation is called karyotype. In this article, let us have a deep insight on the structure and organization of chromosomes, classification of chromosomes, karyotype and idiogram.

Keywords: DNA, Chromosome, Heredity, Karyotype and Idiogram

Edition: Volume 11 Issue 11, November 2022,

Pages: 553 - 557

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