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Research Paper | Urology | Egypt | Volume 10 Issue 11, November 2021
Scientific Fraud Not Due to Fraudulent Research in Science
Dr Ahmed Nasr M Ghanem
Abstract: Scientific fraud is caused by Fraudulent Research in Science (FRS) or Fraudulent Science (FS) induced by an unintentional error. Although both are totally different, they both have deleterious effect on patient care. The FS is induced by unintentional errors based on false believes and misconceptions due to immaturity of science at the time of the research and publication. It is validated by new discoveries that complete the scientific knowledge and by careful critical analytical review of the literature that is highly motivated in seeking the truth. The FRS is an act of deception or misrepresentation of one's own work which violates ethical standards is not discussed here. This article reports 6 major errors affecting impactful landmark articles that concern the capillary physiology and ARDS that have serious deleterious effect on patient care. The reported examples of errors in physiology, medicine and science include: 1. The wrong Starling?s law.2. Two misconceptions on capillary physiology.3. A significant error in the study that transferred Starling?s hypothesis into a law.4. Errors on the article reporting on Precapillary sphincters maintain perfusion in the cerebral cortex.5. A gross erroneous conclusion of the study that advanced the concept and practice of liberal fluid infusion in septic shock and other types of shock that causes ARDS.6: Natural Selection on the evolution of man. The regulatory authorities on scientific fraud should take notice of the reported examples of FS and validate the issues doing the needful.
Keywords: Scientific fraud; Fraudulent science; Fraudulent research in science; Publication ethics
Edition: Volume 10 Issue 11, November 2021,
Pages: 748 - 757