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Research Paper | Biochemistry | Nigeria | Volume 8 Issue 7, July 2019
Chemical Composition of Baobab Leaves and Fractionation of its Ethanolic Extract Using Column Chromatography
Kayode Adebisi Arowora | Ojochenemi Ejeh Yakubu | Christopher Shaibu | Terungwa Joseph Iornenge | Kenneth Chinekwu Ugwuoke
Abstract: Background and objective: This study investigated the nutritional and phytochemical composition, antioxidant characteristics of Adansonia. digitata (baobab) leaves as well as fractionation of its ethanolic extract using column chromatography. Materials and methods: Baobab leaves were collected from wukari, dried under shade and analyzed for proximate, minerals and phytochemical compositions. Results: Using the column chromatographic fractionation, the following ranges were observed: Total antioxidant capacity (355.56-2900mg/ml), Total phenolic content (2.92- 365.42mg/ml), Total flavonoid content (0.41-30.05mg/ml), Metal chelating activity (361.54-5476.92mg/ml) and Beta carotene content (2.89-217.39mg/ml). Proximate composition of baobab leaves revealed the following levels: protein (19.84±0.022 %), fat (3.72±0.014 %), fibre (4.16±0.014 %), ash (8.66±0.014 %), Moisture (9.86±0.00 %), and Carbohydrate (53.78±0.05 %). The result of the Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of the following at indicated levels: Tannins (31.43±0.022mg/100g), Alkaloids (9.35±0.014mg/100g), Flavonoids (63.43±0.022mg/100g), Phenolics (124.36±0.05mg/100g), Glycosides (14.63±0.014mg/100g), Terpenes (12.65±0.02mg/100g) and steroids (6.13±0.022mg/100g). The mineral composition analysis revealed the presence of the following minerals: Ca (415.63±0.020mg/100g), Fe (10.93±0.014mg/100g), Mg (155.92±0.00mg/100g), K (345.41±0.00mg/100g), Na (21.43±0.022mg/100g), P (226.75±0.00mg/100g), Cr (1.06±0.02 µg/100g), S (0.17±0.022mg/100g), Zn (8.32 ± 0.02 mg/100g), Mn (35.16±0.05 mg/100g), Cu (7.52±0.014mg/100g). Conclusion: This study has shown that Adansonia digitata leaves contain appreciable levels of nutrient components, useful minerals and phytochemicals such as cardiac glycosides and phenolics which are beneficial to heart and also have antioxidant properties for scavenging free radicals.
Keywords: Proximate composition, baobab leaves, phytochemicals, minerals
Edition: Volume 8 Issue 7, July 2019,
Pages: 812 - 821