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Research Paper | Arts and Humanities | Iraq | Volume 8 Issue 8, August 2019
Tawba Al-Khafaji: His Political Confrontations & Invasion during the Umayyad Era
Khudir Abdul Ridha Jasim PhD | Adhraa A. Naser PhD | Rashid Ahmed Mokhtar Fareed
Abstract: This research investigates the literary, political and bibliographical life of Tewba Al-Khafaji who is a historical and political character that attracted the attention of contemporary historical and academic studies. Al-Khafaji; who is considered the forth ancestor of the Khafaja generations, rebelled the authorities of the Umayyad State and dissented its political line and approach. His invasions and confrontation throughout the Umayyad era had a significant role of disturbing the state and hence presented the significance of the study of his life and literary works. The research examines different sections of his life that are related to introducing a biography of Tewba Al-Khafaji. He was well-known for his love to Layla all-Akhyaliyya. He lived the pre-Islamic era, Islamic era and the Umayyad rule through which he was known for his invasions on the lands of Bin Al-Harith, bin Ka’b, Hamdan, Qadha’a, Muhrah and other Arab tribes. He was one of the few who has a great knowledge of the roads and ways throughout the desert and the lands of these tribes. Tawba was killed in one of his invasions in 676 AD/57 HJ. The research examines the heroic duels and challenges Tawba was part of and discovered that historical records of these stories praised these conflicts and fights between him and other famous Arab poets such as Jamil Buthayna, Malik ibn Alraib Al-Mazini, Al-Farazdaq (Hammam ibn Ghalib or Abu Firas) and many other poets who are recorded proudly in history. The research depended on a large number of significant reference starting with [Kitab al-Aghanai] (the Book of Songs) 966AD/356HJ by Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani which is an encyclopedic collection of poems and songs that is published in over 20 volumes in modern editions by the 10th-century Arabic literary figure Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani, [Zahrat al-Adab wa Thamarat al-Albab] (The Flower of Literatures and the fruit of the hearts) 1061AD/453HJ for Al Qayrawani, [Mujama’ al-Amthal] (The Dictionary of Proverbs) of Al-Maydani 1124AD/518HJ and many others attached in the reference section.
Keywords: History, poetry Tweba Al-Khafaji, Muslim poets
Edition: Volume 8 Issue 8, August 2019,
Pages: 293 - 298