Gamal J. A. Aboulgasem, Azab El-Sayed Azab, Mahdi M. Almaky
Abstract: The most essential aspects of food chemistry are the additives and preservatives. The addition of sodium nitrite as a food additive, to our foods may react with amines of the foods in the stomach and produces nitrosamines or large numbers of free radicals. These free radicals, known to cause oxidative stress, that could be harmful to different organs including liver and kidney. Flavonoids and various phenolics are the most important pharmacologically active constituents in propolis capable of scavenging free radicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sodium nitrite administration on some biochemical parameters in the blood serum and to explore the ability of aqueous extract of Libyan propolis as a natural source of antioxidants to minimize the harmful effects of sodium nitrite in male Guinea pigs. In this study, twenty four adult male guinea pigs were used for this study and divided into four groups. The first group was control group, the 2nd was the propolis group orally received propolis (200 mg/kg body wt), the 3rd was the experimental and received sodium nitrite orally at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight, the 4th one co-administered sodium nitrite orally at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight with propolis (200 mg/kg body wt) daily for 30 days. Blood samples were obtained for assessment of serum biochemical (glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and - glutamyltransferase activities, total proteins albumin, and globulin concentrations, A/G ratio, urea, uric acid, creatinine concentrations, sodium ion, and potassium ion concentrations ) parameters. In sodium nitrite treated animals, the serum glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and - glutamyltransferase activities, urea, uric acid, creatinine, sodium ion, and potassium ion concentrations parameters were increased and serum total proteins albumin, and globulin concentrations, and A/G ratio, were decreased. Co-administration of propolis significantly improved of all biochemical parameters. It can be concluded that, sodium nitrite had adverse effects on some biochemical parameters in the blood serum. Propolis supplementation showed a remarkable amelioration of these abnormalities in sodium nitrite treated male Guinea pigs. It is recommended that the use of sodium nitrite must be limited and use of propolis as antioxidant to prevent the toxic effect. Further studies are necessary to elucidate exact mechanism of protection of serum biochemical alterations and potential usefulness of aqueous extract of Libyan propolis as a protective agent against sodium nitrite induced biochemical toxicity in clinical trials.
Keywords: Hepato-renal dysfunction, Libyan propolis, Male Guinea pig, Serum glucose, Serum proteins, Sodium Nitrite