Jayarama Reddy, Nitin Ravikanthachari
Abstract: Butterflies are potentially useful ecological indicators of urbanization because they are ready surveyed, and they are sensitive to changes in microclimate, temperature, solar radiation, and the availability of host plants for ovipositing and larval development. They serve as important plant pollinators in the local environment, and help to pollinate more than 50 economically important plant crops. This research was carried out to understand to effects of environmental stress on the life cycle of butterflies. To find out the effect of nutritional stress on the morphology of butterflies and also find the effect of environmental stress on mortality rates of developing butterflies. Big labelled cages were used to house the adult butterflies after eclosion from their respective populations and small cages were used during oviposition. The caterpillars after hatching were housed in plastic containers with sufficient aeration till pupation was achieved. Cassia siamea leaves were used as the food source for caterpillars and for oviposition. Phytochemical analysis of Cassia siamea was also done to know its constituents. These organisms were put under varoius environmental stresses and the effects of stresses were studied documented regularly. The butterflies showed reduced fecundity, increased mortality and faster eclosion under stress. At the same time the stressed indviduals were smaller and the wing span was less compared to the control. PAST software was used to calculate the P value and for Anova ( Analysis of Variance).
Keywords: Butterflies, microclimate, temperature, solar radiation, ovipositing, larval development, Cassia siamea, Anova