Abstract: This study provide guidelines for the sustainable use and conservation of biological diversity and for the improvement of the relation between people and their environment globally. Sanctuaries, National parks and Biosphere Reserves are considered as protected areas. There are 13 Biosphere Reserves in India. The program of Biosphere Reserve was initiated under The man and Biosphere (MAB) program by UNESCO in 1971. Biosphere Reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal or marine ecosystem, or a combination thereof, which are internationally recognized for promoting and demonstrating a balanced relationship between people and nature. This paper focuses on environmental planning of Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve which extends from Rameswaram Island to Tuticorin. There are 21 islands running almost parallel to the coastline of Gulf of Mannar. It spreads over an area of 10500 sq. km having 3600 species of flora and fauna. 130 species of corals are found here. This study provides a guideline for sustainable use of resources, activities to be permitted along coastal stretch, coastal highways, and mangroves, reclamation of saline and alkaline soil, coastal pollution, sedimentation, avifauna, settlements, tourism and recommended vegetation.
Keywords: Sustainability, Conservation, Biosphere, Marine, Resources