R. Arihanth, Dr Anuradha
Abstract: Aim To correlate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy with duration of diabetes mellitus. Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a major systemic cause of blindness in the major part of the world. It is a metabolic disease in which not only carbohydrate metabolism but metabolism of lipid and proteins are also deranged. The associated metabolic deregulation causes secondary pathophysiological changes in multiple organ systems. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) refers to the retinal changes that occur in patients with diabetes mellitus. It is the leading cause of blindness particularly in the affluent society. The newer evolving techniques and technology have improved the diagnostic accuracy of screening methods and access of the diabetic patients to specialist care. In spite of this progress, DR remains a significant cause of acquired visual loss in working-age adults worldwide. More number of diabetics is encountered in the elderly age group. It is expected that the demographic shift toward a larger ageing population in India will have an effect on the pattern of chronic diseases and their complications. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 500 patients who were reported diabetics or newly diagnosed diabetics referred for screening for DR. Patients with posterior segment disease in whom posterior segment was not visualized were excluded from the study. A detailed ophthalmological examination of the patients was carried out. Results: Total prevalence of DR is 49.The prevalence of DR was seen to be 10 % when duration of diabetes detected was less than 6 years and was 87.7 % in patients with diabetes of more than 20 years. Conclusion: There is an increasing prevalence of DR with increase in duration of DM.
Keywords: diabetes, retinopathy, progression, duration