Abstract: Introduction: The retrograde peri-implantitis is a condition, that is not very common, but threatens seriously the implant survival.
Aim: The aim of this review was to summarize the basic data about the retrograde peri-implantitis and clarify the causes and treatment options for the condition.
Material and Methods: The review includes articles in English language, which were published in the period of 1992 to 2019. Articles, which were directly related to the topic were selected, as the search was conducted using the following combinations of keywords: 'retrograde peri-implantitis', 'implant periapical lesion', 'apical peri-implantitis'.
Results: In the different articles the condition was termed three different ways: retrograde peri-implantitis, implant periapical lesion and apical peri-implantitis. The selected articles described different classification systems, etiological factors and treatment options.
Conclusion: Unified classification system for retrograde peri-implantitis combining all the available classification models should be considered. Various factors could lead to development of implant periapical lesion, as the most important remains the infectious component. The treatment plan in the cases of retrograde peri-implantitis depends on the evolution stage of the disease, considering the clinical and radiological findings.
Keywords: retrograde peri-implantitis, apical peri-implantitis, implant periapical lesion