Badr Eldin A. E. Saeed, Marmar A. El Siddig, Aisha Ohag Osman, Adil A. El Hussein
Abstract: aim of this study was to develop a protocol for callus induction and regeneration of 12 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars widely grown in Sudan. Different concentrations/combinations of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) and Zeatin were tested for efficient callus, shoot and root inductions using mature embryos. Experiments were laid out in a completely randomized design with ten replicates and Duncans Multiple Range test was used for mean separation. There were significant differences between the means number of calli obtained with different 2, 4-D concentrations tested. The highest frequencies of induced embryogenic calli were recorded in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 2.0 mg/l of 2, 4-D. Different wheat cultivars displayed variable frequencies in their response to each of the six 2, 4-D concentrations indicating genetic variability and that wheat regeneration is genotype dependent. Shoots and roots were successfully induced in MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 2, 4-D and 1.0 mg/l Zeatin. The highest regeneration capacities of more than 40 % were recorded for cultivars Sasareeb (49 %), Nebta (45 %) and Imam (42 %), while the lowest (19 %) was recorded for cv. Nasser. This simple and reproducible regeneration protocol can be used in any future biotechnological program for wheat improvement in Sudan.
Keywords: Wheat, callus induction, embryogenesis, regeneration