Remaz, M. Juma, Nagwa B. Elhag
Abstract: Camel milk is well known for its health benefits and it has been consumed in many countries worldwide. It is usually consumed fresh and unpasteurized. It is contaminated with different microorganisms particularly the pathogenic one during milking, handling, transportation and marketing. Daily consumption of fresh cow milk may contribute to the foodborne diseases out breaks. Thus the aim of this study is to isolate and identify Staphylococcus species and detect methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus associated with fresh udder and commercial camel milk samples. The streak method on Blood agar medium and disc diffusion method were used for investigation and detection of Staphylococci and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus respectively. A total of 60 samples were collected from camel farms at different stages of milking and commercial fresh camel milk samples purchased from supermarkets outlets at Bahri locality. Results revealed that the percentage occurrence of Staphylococci species was 41.7 %, 25 %, 33.3 %, 83.3 % and 50 % for the samples obtained before udder sterilization, after udder sterilization, directly from utensils of milking, pooled milk and commercial raw camel milk respectively. Staphylocoocus species farm isolates were identified as S. aureus (10.4 %), S. epidermidis (12.5 %), and S. arlettae (6.2 %), S. kloosii (4.2 %), S. caprae, S. gallinarum, S. intermedius, S. carnosus, S. chromogenes and S. warneri (2.1 %) for each. The Staphylococcus species isolated from the commercial raw camel milk were S. epidermidis and S. intermedius (16.7 %) for each, S. aureus and S. equorum was (8.3 %) for each. The percentages of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in all samples from farms and commercial milk were 10.4 % and 8.3 % respectively. The results indicated that raw camel milk can be contaminated with Staphylococcus species and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus due to improper hygiene i.e. conditions of milking. Fresh camel obtained from farms and offered for sale are highly contaminated with positive and negative coagulase Staphylococci. The presence of methicillin resistant is potential health risk. Therefore they are considered as a health risk for human consumption. Proper procedure, good manufacturing practices (GMP) and good hygienic practices are recommended to improve milk quality.
Keywords: raw camel milk, coagulase positive, coagulase negative, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Sudan