Abstract: Artificial Intelligence is a field which has been in a continuous process of advancement since its inception over half a century ago. The recent development in Deep Learning and Neural Networks have brought forth a larger scope of AI applications, with the largest impact arguably being in the healthcare sector. By 2030, when AI is predicted to make up a significant chunk of the world economy, healthcare will be the sector to benefit the most from the adoption of Artificial Intelligence. Many of the present problems which plague the healthcare ecosystem, not only in India but in the rest of the world too, can be tackled to varying extents with the help of AI. For example, using automated screening and diagnosing technology to scan through thousands of MRI scans, time as well as money can be saved. The beauty of most of these algorithms is that their accuracy keeps increasing through self-training as they process more and more data – effectively reducing the need for human intervention. The Indian healthcare ecosystem has suffered from significant under-investment, with only about 3.6 % of total GDP spent on healthcare, much lower as compared to OECD or even BRICS nations. Under India’s plan to become an Upper Middle-Income Country by 2030, healthcare is now becoming a priority sector for the Indian government. This paper provides a summary of the complex and multi-layered Indian healthcare system, followed by the scope of AI applications in Indian healthcare in four broad areas, from administration to drug discovery and management. The key challenges and risks associated with AI adoption are also highlighted, along with relevant case studies which have shown promising results. All in all, Artificial Intelligence is ideally suited to enhance the Indian healthcare sector, which is in a dire need of cost-effective, high quality, and scalable solutions.
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, AI, Healthcare, Public Healthcare, India, Indian healthcare