Abstract: Introduction: Oral leukoplakia is the most common premalignant lesion of oral cavity. Leuko means ‘white’ and plakia means ‘patch’. These lesions are often associated with carcinogenic exposures, such as use of tobacco, alcohol. Alpha 1 antitrypsin is a protein belonging to serpin superfamily. As a type of enzyme inhibitor it protects tissues from enzymes of inflammatory cells specifically from neutrophil elastase. Method: This clinical study included 60 patients from 2013- 2015. 30 patients each in study and control group. Result: Males were more affected from oral leukoplakia as compared to females. In study group serum a1at range was 0.70-1.60 g/l, whereas control group range was recorded 0.90-1.90 g/l. p value was highly significant. Conclusion: In the absence of alpha 1 antitrypsin neutrophil elastase is free to break down elastin, which contributes to elasticity of lungs, resulting in respiratory complication such as emphysema, COPD. The results obtained in clinical study were inconclusive of role of A1AT in oral leukoplakia pathogenesis.
Keywords: oral leukoplakia, premalignant lesion, alpha-1- antitrypsin, anti-proteinase