Mohammad Ali, Shishir Kumar Biswas, Tanzima Shahreen
Abstract: 26, 000 temporary emergency latrines has been installed at very initial stage of 788, 901 Rohingya Influx. After one year the needs to identify more sustainable sanitation options became target of WASH Sector. To support this objective, this study assesses functionality of different sanitation options based on user perspective, hardware conditions, performance, cost effectiveness and suitability, which helps to identify the most sustainable options in refugee camps and also taking into account the first year experience and recommendation from experts. Considering the functionality 36 % lack of privacy issue, 85 % odour problem, 71 % lack of lighting facilities, less than 70 % of the useable latrines are hygienic and 80 % of the major components of superstructure were found working. 23 % does not has proper soak pit and majority soak pits are not working properly and user believe this latrine create environmental pollution. 13 % latrine became flooded and polluted water during monsoon. 64 % latrine surroundings were found clean and 56 % mentioned that both men and women contribute to clean latrine once in every three days with water. 67 % latrine needed desludging after every two months which is not happing when it required and sometimes it takes more than two weeks. Considering the cost effectiveness twin pit (5.9 USD/person/year), sceptic tank (4.4 USD/person/year), Biogas (4.9 USD/person/year) and biofil single pit (10.9 USD/person/year) and biofil twin pit (4.4 USD/person/year). Similarly, the main cost for longer operation and associated O&M cost, Bio-fil Twin Pit (0.89 USD/year), Bio-fil single Pit (2.01 USD/year), septic tank (2.33 USD/year) and twin-pit (2.97 USD/year) were found best option based on the performance and cost effectiveness. Considering sustainability indicator of Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA), Biofil and Biogas reactors carry more positive points and other options are twin pit and septic tank.
Keywords: Rohingya Influx, Sustainable options, Cost effectiveness, Functionality, Biofil