Turki M. Habeebullah, Atef M.F. Mohammed, Essam A. Morsy
Abstract: Growing air pollution is a major concern in many major cities in the developed or developing countries all over the world. The current study intends to monitor and map different sizes of Particulate Matters (PM) during December 2013 from four locations (Shebeka, Azizaih, Masfalah, Awaly district) in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. In addition to Total Suspended Partciles (TSP), this paper analyses the levels of PM1, PM2.5, PM7, and PM10, which are particulate matters with aerodynamic diameter of 1, 2.5, 7 and 10 micron, respectively. The data were collected using a portable device PM Dustmeter AEROCET-531, in which the measuring locations was determined using the global positioning system (GPS). Spatial and temporal variability of PM have been investigated and the levels of PM were compared with the air quality standards. High levels of PM were observed in Shebeka district, and low levels of PM were observed in Awaly district. PM10 concentrations did not exceeded the air quality standards set by the Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME) of Saudi Arabia, however the WHO limits were exceeded on several occasions. The coarse and medium size PM were the most dominant fractions of PM, where it reached to (93.5, 89.6, 87.7, and 93.7 %) for Shebeka, Azizaih, Masfalah, Awaly districts, respectively. Re-suspended dust is a major contributor to ambient particulate matter, especially in the coarse particle fraction. The temporal variation in PM concentrations are probably caused by meteorological parameters, especially wind speed and direction. This work shows that the need for further characterization of the fine and coarse particles over a longer period of time in the whole city of Makkah. Further work is also required on source apportionment and for the quantification of potentially detrimental components. Also the health relevance of PM concentrations during these episodes should be investigated further.
Keywords: Makkah, PM1, PM25, PM7, PM10, TSP