Chaitanya Mankar, Vidhya Dhamdhere
Abstract: The development of wireless sensor networks (WSN) was originally motivated by military applications such as battlefield surveillance. However, wireless sensor networks are now used in many civilian application areas, including environment and habitat monitoring, healthcare applications, home automation, and traffic control. In last few years there are lots of advance research has done in WSNs. But the most of research is emphasis on how WSN achieve high efficiency with minimal energy use for this there are number of routing protocol are developed in WNSs depending upon the application and architecture of the network system. In this review article, we discuss the wireless sensor node architecture, WSNs Protocol stack. Further we discuss Routing challenges and design issues in WSN and last we categorize the routing protocols into three main categories such as protocol operation, network organization and route discovery.
Keywords: FLOODING, GOSSIPING, GEAR, LEACH, PEGASIS, WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS