Idda H. Mosha, Winfrida Akyoo, Mangi Ezekiel
Abstract: Intimate partner violence continues to be a global epidemic that physically, emotionally, sexually and economically affects women and girls worldwide. This study sought to examine the factors associated with intimate partner violence among women living in informal settlement of Iringa Tanzania. Methods: This was cross sectional study. In depth interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect data from married/cohabiting women and men aged 18-49 years who were residents of the study community for at least 12 months prior the study. Four focus groups discussions were conducted two among males and two among females. Additionally, eight in depth interviews were conducted - four among females and four among males. The in-depth interviews and focus groups discussions were audio recorded, transcribed and then translated into English. Transcribed data was read several times and then was manually analyzed thematically. The themes were derived by focusing on the meaningful units, from codes that were developed as well as sub-categories and categories. Through constant comparison of information at various stages we derived themes as presented in results section. Results: The findings show that there is a presence of IPV which is caused by several factors including polygamy and extra marital affairs, alcohol abuse, patriarchal system and social cultural factors. In addition the culture of silence, victims not knowing their rights, lack of respect to men, women doing/starting up a business/employment, presence of diseases, wives behaviour of not respecting their husbands, learning IPV from peers were reported to trigger IPV. Conclusion: The study revealed that there is presence of IPV in the informal settlement of Iringa, Tanzania which is caused by various factors. There is need to commit to long-term strategies at local, national, and global levels that will help to understand and successfully deal with cultural and societal norms reinforcing IPV. Therefore it is importance to establish programs that support long-term, changes in gender norms and emphasize on gender equality and respect. Long-term sustainable strategy that includes a variety of approaches and involving men can successfully promote and support such changes in the society.
Keywords: Intimate partner violence, informal settlement, Tanzania