Ibrahim Fahad Alkurdi, Mohammad Jafnan Alharbi
Abstract: Periodontal disease (PD) is a highly complex and multi-factorial disease. The two major factors responsible for initiation and progression of the majority of PD are the composition of the microbes in the subgingival plaque and the host immune response to these organisms. This review summarizes role of immunology and some immunological factors involved in the development and control of PD such as: bacterial complexity of PD and microbial dysbiosis, the participation of inflammatory cells in local inflammation. Despite to the fact of innate and adaptive immune activation, and resultant inflammation, our immune response fails to cure PD. Although several studies have tried to clarify some of the immune mechanisms involved in periodontal disease, role of microbial dysbiosis and immune imbalance in the pathogenesis of disease, more studies must be conducted to understand its development and progression and consequently to discover new alternatives for the prevention and treatment of this severe inflammatory disease.
Keywords: Periodontal disease, Immunology, Inflammation, Host-Pathogen interaction, Microbial dysbiosis, Chemotaxis, Complement system