Sumant Shah, Vinkal Ladani, Vishrut Shah
Abstract: Introduction Vitamin D3 deficiency during pregnancy may have a negative effect on both mother and child. The aim of the present study is to do a comparative study of prevalence of vitamin D3 deficiency during first trimester of pregnancy in Indian women in urban and rural areas and to decide if vitamin D3 supplementation is needed in pregnancy. Materials and methods Prospective comparative study of prevalence of vitamin D3 deficiency in first trimester pregnancy in urban and rural areas was carried out at B. J medical college from January 2016 to January 2017. Blood samples of urban women from Ahmedabad civil hospital were collected routinely for screening for serum Vitamin D3 during first trimester of pregnancy and blood samples of rural women were collected from Kavitha village of Ahmedabad district. The serum concentrations of vitamin D3 were analysed by the High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Results In 84 % of the study population (N=50), vitamin D3 concentrations were below 30ng/ml, which is attributed to an insufficient status. 6 % of population had vitamin D3 concentrations below 10ng/ml. Among total population, the mean vitamin D3 level was 21.21 ng/ml. In 100 % of the urban study population (N=25), vitamin D3 concentrations were below 30ng/ml. 8 % of urban study population vitamin D3 concentrations were below 10ng/ml which is attributed to a deficient status. Among urban population, the mean vitamin D3 level was 18.48ng/ml. In 68 % of the rural population (N=25), vitamin D3 concentrations were below 30ng/ml and 8 % of rural study population had vitamin D3 concentrations below 10ng/ml. Among total rural population, the mean vitamin D3 level was 23ng /ml. This shows that in rural population vitamin D3 level was higher as compared to urban population. Conclusion A high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was observed in early pregnancy in urban population which was related to education, occupation, diet, dressing habit, parity, use of multi-vitamins and season at sampling. However the study is limited considering only prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and a longer and detailed follow up is required to assess the effect on maternal and neonatal outcome. Clinical Relevance This shows significant deficiency of vitamin D3 in pregnancy, especially in urban women. The women should receive nutritional and general pregnancy counselling and more attention should be given for vitamin D supplementation.
Keywords: Vitamin D3, pregnancy outcome, vitamin D3 deficiency, first trimester pregnancy, Rural, Urban