Bello, M. I, Wali, W. E
Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Viscum album (Guava mistletoe) and compare its antidiabetic efficacy against the oral antidiabetic drug metformin, using alloxan-induced rat models. Phytochemicals detected includes alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides and terpenoids. Biochemical analysis showed a dose-dependent significant decrease (p< 0.05) in the levels of serum glucose in the rats when treated with Viscum album leaf extract after the induction of diabetic. This observation was vivid when Viscum album treated groups were compared to the diabetic control and metformin- treated groups. Similarly, there was a significant decrease in the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoproteins that were hitherto elevated before treatment with the leaf extract. A corresponding significant increase in the levels of high density lipoproteins was observed when compared with the diabetic control group. The plant extract significantly (p< 0.05) lowered the serum activities of marker enzymes: Alanine and Aspartate aminotransferases. Similarly, a significant decrease (p< 0.05) in creatinine and urea levels was observed in the extract and metformin treated groups when compared to the diabetic control group. In addition, the plant extract attenuated the weight loss observed in diabetic control group. Aqueous leaf extract of Viscum album exhibited high antidiabetic activity which compares fairly well with metformin and very effective in ameliorating other complications associated with diabetic mellitus.
Keywords: Viscum album, mistletoe, antidiabetic, dose-dependent, aqueous leaf extract