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Review Papers | Pediatrics | India | Volume 4 Issue 9, September 2015
Insulin Dependent Diabetes in Children: A Literature Review
Alka Rao  | Gyaneshwar Rao 
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is the general name for a group of chronic metabolic diseases characterized by high blood glucose levels that result from defects in insulin secretion and/or action. The two main forms of diabetes are insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or type 1 diabetes and noninsulin-dependent or type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the beta cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans, which are responsible for insulin production, are progressively destroyed by the immune system. The bodys ability to produce insulin becomes progressively impaired until eventually no insulin is produced. The insulin deficiency results in decreased insulin utilization and increased hepatic glucose production leading to hyperglycemia. In addition, there is an increased breakdown of adipose tissue leading to ketonemia and eventual diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) that, if left untreated, is potentially fatal. Diabetes imposes a severe socioeconomic burden on the child with diabetes as well as on their family, the community and society. Costs of diabetes comprise both direct and indirect costs. In the child, costs of diabetes are calculated in current as well as future terms. Early diagnosis, early initiation of adequate treatment and careful monitoring to avoid complications will help to maintain their health not only in childhood, but also as they grow to adulthood and become productive members of society and the economy.
Keywords: Child, Diabetes, Diabetic ketoacidosis Insulin
Edition: Volume 4 Issue 9, September 2015,
Pages: 949 - 951
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