International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
Since Year 2012 | Open Access | Double Blind Reviewed

ISSN: 2319-7064




Downloads: 119

Review Papers | Environmental Science Studies | Pakistan | Volume 4 Issue 1, January 2015


Use of Antifouling Paints on Ship Hulls over Past Four Decades and Consequent Imposex: A Review

Nuzhat Afsar [2]


Abstract: Review provides the historic stance, general overview of gastropod populations being served as biosensors and developments in imposex detection. Typically muricoid species belonging to genus Nucella and Thais have been found to be good bioindicators globally. Although up to seven (7) imposex developmental stages have been described based on organotin accumulation by an organism and resultant morphological expression (penis and vas deferens development in females) due to endocrine disruption and steroidal imbalance. From Pakistan phenomenon of imposex has been described in nine (9) species of meso and neogasrtropods. Imposex stages 1-4 and 4+ have been found in examined muricids, bursid and buccinid species which revealed the moderate contamination effects on gastropod populations found along the Pakistan coast. Some archaeogastropods from Japan and Pakistan have also been tested respectively for reproductive fitness due to possible contamination effects.


Keywords: shipping traffic, antifouling paints, gastropods, endocrine disruption


Edition: Volume 4 Issue 1, January 2015,


Pages: 1743 - 1746


How to Cite this Article?

Nuzhat Afsar, "Use of Antifouling Paints on Ship Hulls over Past Four Decades and Consequent Imposex: A Review", International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), Volume 4 Issue 1, January 2015, pp. 1743-1746, https://www.ijsr.net/get_abstract.php?paper_id=SUB15543

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