International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
Open Access | Fully Refereed | Peer Reviewed

ISSN: 2319-7064


Downloads: 104

Research Paper | Geography | India | Volume 4 Issue 5, May 2015


Environmental Change and Forced Migration: A Critical Issue of Kazakhstan

Anand R. K.


Abstract: The impact of ecological factors on migration captured a lot of attention over the recent decade. Environmental changes associated with natural phenomena, anthropogenic impacts and climate change encourages increased migration trends, modify their destinations and forms of migration relevant to environmental factors. We can analyze migration issues effectively by using Lee-s -puss-pull- model. Lee-s model usually analyzes political, economic, demographic, environmental factors which are assumed to push people out of places of origin and lure them into destination places. To understand the migration processes in Kazakhstan Lee-s model is effective. Kazakhstan before disintegration to till now is the backbone of Central Asia. Kazakhstan environment change is the result of both anthropogenic exploitation and natural disturbances. Natural disasters like floods, droughts, wind storms, epidemics, and earthquakes disturb the environment of Kazakhstan time to time. When Kazakhstan was under Soviet Union, maximum nuclear testing programs conducted. Several areas have exposed to high level of nuclear radiation which leads to radioactive pollution for a long period of time. Semipalatinsk is one of them. Diseases like breathing problem, tissue related problem, cancer, eye infection are common. People are bound to leave their native places and resettled in other places which we called forced migration. To became a world superpower Soviet Union make this place worst to survive because the environment of this region is radiated due to explosion. The Aral Sea represents one of the world-s major human induced environmental problem areas. The forced cultivation of cotton during the Socialist era was the main cause of water diversion for irrigation. The problem became worst when water used for irrigation wasted due to lack of proper management and infrastructure. Other major issues which affect the environment are air pollution, decreasing level of underground water, dust storms, salinity etc. Air pollution in Kazakhstan is the fundamental result of industrial smokes, mineral extraction, inadequate industrial policies and management. In Kazakhstan, the cause of maximum internal displacement of people is due to adverse environmental conditions like in Kyzylorda province and in East- Kazakhstan where Semipalatinsk and the Aral Sea are located respectively.


Keywords: Anthropogenic disasters, Environmental change, Aral Sea, Semipalatinsk, Internal displacement


Edition: Volume 4 Issue 5, May 2015,


Pages: 3079 - 3086


How to Cite this Article?

Anand R. K., "Environmental Change and Forced Migration: A Critical Issue of Kazakhstan", International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), https://www.ijsr.net/get_abstract.php?paper_id=SUB154991, Volume 4 Issue 5, May 2015, 3079 - 3086

How to Share this Article?

Enter Your Email Address


Similar Articles with Keyword 'Environmental change'

Downloads: 125

Research Paper, Geography, India, Volume 4 Issue 11, November 2015

Pages: 769 - 773

Analysis of Land Use/Land Cover Change in Jammu District Using Geospatial Techniques

Dr. Anuradha Sharma, Davinder Singh

Share this Article

Downloads: 128

Research Paper, Geography, India, Volume 5 Issue 11, November 2016

Pages: 200 - 215

Dwindling the Major Indigenous Freshwater Fish Species-An Ecological Meltdown Scenario to Local Environmental Sustainability: A Bio-geographical Study on Khejuri over Coastal Medinipur

Rabin Das

Share this Article

Similar Articles with Keyword 'Anthropogenic'

Downloads: 1

Research Paper, Geography, India, Volume 10 Issue 9, September 2021

Pages: 1517 - 1521

Demographic Characteristics and Changing Land Use in the Coastal Zone of Kozhikode

Sreelusreepadi, Dr. Lancelet .T .S

Share this Article

Downloads: 43

Survey Paper, Geography, India, Volume 10 Issue 2, February 2021

Pages: 399 - 404

Response to Coastal Erosion in Coastal Villages of Contai Coastal Tract

Swapan Kumar Tala

Share this Article

Similar Articles with Keyword 'disasters'

Downloads: 1

Informative Article, Geography, India, Volume 10 Issue 6, June 2021

Pages: 1589 - 1591

Role of Media in Generating Public Awareness in Disaster Risk Reduction

Renu Bali

Share this Article

Downloads: 101

Research Paper, Geography, Iran, Volume 2 Issue 7, July 2013

Pages: 1 - 4

Study the Effects of Unexpected Disaster on Negative Trends of Rural Development Case Study: Varzaghan Citys Earthquakes (2012), Iran

Hassan Houshyar, Salam Adhami

Share this Article

Similar Articles with Keyword 'Environmental'

Downloads: 1

Research Paper, Geography, India, Volume 10 Issue 4, April 2021

Pages: 1178 - 1181

Growth of Tourism Resources in Haryana

Rajesh Kumar, Dr. Pardeep Sharma

Share this Article

Downloads: 1 | Weekly Hits: ⮙1 | Monthly Hits: ⮙1

Research Paper, Geography, India, Volume 10 Issue 11, November 2021

Pages: 206 - 213

The Need and Use of Geographic Information Systems for Environmental Impact Assessment

Gajendra Singh Rathore, Kamlesh Kumar

Share this Article

Similar Articles with Keyword 'change'

Downloads: 1

Research Paper, Geography, India, Volume 10 Issue 9, September 2021

Pages: 1037 - 1047

Female Literacy and Changes in Child Sex Ratio in Bihar: A District Level Analysis

Shahid Imam

Share this Article

Downloads: 1

Research Paper, Geography, India, Volume 10 Issue 9, September 2021

Pages: 1517 - 1521

Demographic Characteristics and Changing Land Use in the Coastal Zone of Kozhikode

Sreelusreepadi, Dr. Lancelet .T .S

Share this Article

Similar Articles with Keyword 'Aral'

Downloads: 112

Research Paper, Geography, India, Volume 4 Issue 8, August 2015

Pages: 963 - 966

A Geomorphological Analysis of the Longitudinal Profile of Tambraparni River, Agasthyamalai Sub-Cluster, South Western Ghats

Karthika Krishnan, S. Mohana Kumar

Share this Article

Downloads: 122

Case Studies, Geography, India, Volume 3 Issue 6, June 2014

Pages: 1242 - 1251

Existence and Experience of Purba Medinipur Coastal Belt on Its Morpho-Dynamic Journey with the Distinctive Geology and Geomorphology

Rabin Das, Pijushkanti Dandapath

Share this Article

Similar Articles with Keyword 'Sea'

Downloads: 1

Research Paper, Geography, Kenya, Volume 3 Issue 9, September 2014

Pages: 1792 - 1798

Application of GIS in Facility Space Management: A Case Study of ILRI

Marion W. Mwaniki, Patroba A. Odera

Share this Article

Downloads: 1

Research Paper, Geography, India, Volume 10 Issue 5, May 2021

Pages: 324 - 335

Spatio-Temporal Variation in Sex Ratio and Growth of Population in Rajasthan: A District Level Study

Nishi Kumari

Share this Article
Top